Filter > Render > Flame

An Adobe Photoshop often forgotten filter

Fire is a very popular digital substance these days. There are photo art actions that will set any subject on fire. There are photos of fire carefully extracted and served as PNG files to graphic artists. And there are well-known paint programs and 3rd party filters, such as Alien Skin’s Eye Candy, that offer their renditions of fire and flame. However, Photoshop itself has been offering a way to render flames since at least CC 2014. It is no longer available as a scripted pattern fill (Edit> Fill), but now solely resides in the Render menu, along with Trees, Frames, Clouds, Lighting, and more. Many of us tend to forget that the Flame filter even exists. The other day  I remembered it when I wanted a few flames for an art journal page, and decided to reacquaint myself, so I created a simple image to walk through the process and share with you—just in case, like me, you tend to forget how something works when you go a long time without using it.

To use the Flame filter in Photoshop, you first need to create a path. The Pen tool is the obvious method for drawing a path, but for those of you who find the Pen tool intimidating, you can also use a Shape drawn with the Path setting in the Options bar. The main limitation to using a Shape is that it’s always a closed path that encloses empty space, even if a very narrow empty space. It will still generate flames, but it won’t look the same as a flame drawn with the Pen tool. However, that’s not only not always bad, but using a shape is also a quick way to produce an image if you want a burning heart (or house or. . . ).

Flames created with Shape and Pen tool paths
Although the Flame filter requires a path to operate on, you can create a path using a custom Shape layer in Path mode, (left), a basic shape such as Line (middle, or create a path with the Pen tool (right). The Direct Selection tool is used to modify both Shapes and Pen tool paths.
Adding the first layer of flames
Several open paths on the same path layer were used to generate these flames using One Flame Along Path as the Flame Type. Only one slider is in play in this mode on the Basic tab, but you can choose a custom color. Paths shown were stroked with a magenta Pencil on a separate layer for visibility in the screen shot only and were not visible in the final image.

Once you’ve drawn your path (multiple paths can reside on the same layer), it’s a good idea to save your path layer by double-clicking on it and naming it. You’ll probably want to be able to return to it to adjust or use for another flame. Next, create a new, empty layer—the filter always returns pixels and won’t run as a Smart Filter, so protect your image from a destructive operation. With the path active in the Paths panel (you can see the path in the document window), and the empty layer targeted, choose Filter> Render> Flame. . . . In the dialog, experiment with the different settings in the Flame Type list and their sliders to see what looks best. You can also select a custom color for your flames.

New Flame type rendered to image file
After adding in the background (a paper from Holliewood of Mischief Circus), and modifying the logs with a style and overlay, two horizontal, wavy paths on a single path layer created the small ember flames using Multiple Flames One Direction for the Type.
Initial image with 2 separate renders
After rendering both types of flames, this image using the default color provides a start to further exploration of the filter’s capabilities.

Once you have constructed a flame type that you think is very close to what you want, you can choose the Advanced tab to modify the results even more. Most of the settings here are subtle, although some can make a significant difference in the result. For this demonstration, I only used the Basic tab, which in many cases is all you’ll need. Click OK to render the flame(s). Now you can deselect the path in the Paths panel and create another path, or several more paths, on separate layers, to complete the image of your object on fire. For my example, I rendered different flame layers using different paths, and used custom colors, blend modes, and opacity. Where necessary, I modified the paths while looking at the rendered flames on a layer, then turned off the layer, created a new one, and re-ran the filter. I also used Free Transform on rendered flame layers to help them fit the image better.

Two renders of one flame type with different settings
The Flame type Multiple Flames One Direction makes use of several sliders to determine the length of the flames, their width, and their spacing. Shown above is the result of rendering the same flame type two separate times, but using slightly different settings, custom color, blend modes and layer opacity.
Last version shown with and without the paths that created them
Multiple paths (shown top), along with rendering flames with custom color and settings, as well as adding in blend modes and layer opacity produced the image at bottom.

With its decent preview and straightforward sliders, Flame does a pretty good job for anyone who doesn’t need to add lots of flames to everything. If you want greater realism or an organic feel to your flames, building up your fire from multiple flame layers can get you closer than you might expect. But if you want a stylized graphic, this filter has got that covered, too. For occasional use, if you’re willing to toy with the sliders and adjust the paths, I think you’ll find it adequate for most purposes, without forcing you to think you have to spend a lot of money on 3rd party solutions.

"Daily Planner" series for Democrace with Flame render
Several designers—Rucolla, Lynne Anzelc, ViVa, and more—were used to create this “Daily Planner” art journal piece as part of a series for Democracy. The fire engulfing “Free and Fair Elections” was created very quickly in Adobe Photoshop CC with the Flame filter.

Topaz Studio First Look

What the open beta says about the next Topaz product

Like probably most of you, I’ve recently been playing with the Topaz Studio public beta. As someone who owns the full collection of Topaz plug-ins, I’ve been paying attention mostly to what the Studio does for me that the plug-ins don’t. Topaz Studio is quite different from the plug-ins—a bit more like the next generation of photoFXlab. But does it do enough to make me willing to pay for another Topaz venture?

Unlike some popular editing software, Topaz Studio makes no attempt to manage your files. It offers neither a browser nor a catalog solution; it’s up to you to know where your files are and to manage them. It does, however, offer a complete workflow for editing your images and adding a variety of effects, along with masks, blend modes and layers to keep the non-destructive workflow edits fully customizable.  It will open your raw files, as well as JPEG, PNG, or TIFF in its standalone version, and acts like a regular plug-in if you invoke it through Adobe Photoshop or Lightroom. You can run it as a Smart Filter in Photoshop, or choose Edit In Topaz Studio with Lightroom.

The features in Topaz Studio emphasize workflow and effects presets constructed from multiple individual adjustments, much like the presets you find in Texture Effects. The Workflow menu covers the more common editing methods, such as “Detailed Architecture” or “Perfect Portrait.” The “More” adjustments section contains a separate menu for each adjustment to be added in any order, or to use in addition to a workflow. The Effects menu works just like it does in Impression and Texture Effects, providing a list of categories to search for effects, previewing them in the sidebar thumbnails, and providing the customary edit button to enter the editing workspace with the chosen effect. Most of the other tools are shortcuts to basic adjustments, as well as to quick editing workflows for the first basic edits you usually perform.

Menu Contents shown
From R to L: Workflow, Adjustment, and Effects menus (not all fully shown)
Quick Edit and tools interface
Icons for basic editing tools, the Workflow and Adjustments menus, as well as quick access to the most common adjustments and basic editing workflows are always available. Shown above is the workflow if you click on the Quick preset.

I think its fairly clear from  looking at the main features in Topaz Studio that its design is intended to leverage the power of the presets they’ve already been offering us through their filters. At the same time, it speeds up the process by creating workflows that combine many of the features that are currently found in their separate plug-ins, such as adding a Radiance adjustment created from their Glow filter, with a Texture adjustment from Texture Effects, and a Precision Contrast adjustment from Clarity, perhaps. If you don’t own some of their filters (or any of them), you still will be able to use many of the more popular features contained in them through these adjustment layers. And if you do own their filters, you can use the Plug-Ins menu at the top to take a copy of your image directly into a filter to gain access to the full power of any of the plug-ins, while still using the simplified workflow approach in Topaz Studio.

Showing thumbnail previews and Edit panel
To the left is the thumbnail view for presets in the selected category. This feature should be familiar to anyone who has Impressions, Glow, or Texture Effects. To the right are the editable layers that constitute the selected effect. If an adjustment layer is neither free nor purchased, it shows up with the effect, but without the sliders that allow for more customization of the settings.
Image Tray can hold many images to blend with each other
Images open into an Image Tray. Any image can be duplicated or duplicated as a new image with all the current active edits applied (using icons in the tray not shown). Although the images in this example are from the same original, an Open icon in the tray also allows you to open different images in order to blend them, similar to using the multiple exposure option in Topaz Texture Effects. Note that the image on the far right was created in Topaz B&W Effects 2 run as a plug-in to Topaz Studio on a duplicate of the image first edited with a Studio workflow.

There’s of course a trade-off to using Topaz Studio to run their more powerful filters—unlike running them individually on Smart Object layers, you can’t later on edit the results non-destructively, re-entering the plug-in merely by double-clicking on its Smart Filter name. However, while you’re in Topaz Studio and working with multiple versions or any other images, you can use the Image Layer feature right then and there to blend results from Topaz filters with each other or with an image you edited solely with Topaz Studio.

The Image Layer interface
A very nice feature in Topaz Studio lets you blend image layers, so versions that have been edited for different qualities can continue to be adjusted before leaving Topaz Studio, or completely different images can be blended as desired.

When I first started looking into the use of Topaz Studio, I was feeling hard-pressed to find a good reason to invest any of my time, let alone my money, in yet another standalone/plug-in image editor. Topaz Studio in particular appeared too simplified to offer much, since even the individual adjustments aren’t as powerful as the full plug-in filters, whether Clarity, or ReStyle, or Texture Effects. However, the more I explore Topaz Studio, and the more images I throw at it, the more I’ve come to feel this simplification of features is an asset, not a liability. The basic editing workflows are very well designed to cover a wide variety of images, and are especially welcome in my workflow when I’m editing the numerous snapshots I have taken or had given to me, like the bridal image I’ve used for these examples. It may not be the ideal application for your very best fine art images, but if we’re honest, most of us have plenty of snaps that we don’t want to spend hours editing. We would, however, like to quickly and easily make them more interesting to look at or better memories to hold. And being able to use our Topaz filters with Topaz Studio makes for a very powerful combination that goes well beyond the quick fix for a snapshot, providing us with a creative adventure.

Results from Topaz Studio modified in Adobe Photoshop
Although the Topaz filter B&W Effects 2 wasn’t run as Smart Filter, but inside Topaz Studio, the image can of course still be modified in Photoshop to alter color, texture, and tone as desired.

Topaz has recently announced that the basic version of Topaz Studio will be free. A small collection of basic editing adjustments will be fully customizable, while the remainder won’t include their sliders unless you purchase the “pro” version of the adjustment separately. From what I can tell, the Effects and Workflow presets that include adjustments you don’t own will produce results, but only Opacity, blend mode, and masking is editable. I won’t swear to this, of course, since this is still beta and anything can still be added or removed. And since this still IS a beta, I won’t go into any discussion of bugs or other feature limitations. I am, however, increasingly aware of the place this application could have in my day-to-day workflow.

Student Debt Art Journal page for Democracy
Student Debt, from my Democracy art journal series, used a photo art action and several textures to blend the old photo of Stanford University with the lower half from Mischief Circus, including several art dolls from Xquizart. The unifying color and textures could have been even more easily added if I’d had the Topaz open beta when I made this.

Photoshop’s Puppet Warp

Using the most flexible Warp tool

I confess when I’m pulling out elements to scrap or journal with, I’ll remember I can change the hue, saturation, and lightness of any object, as well as scale it to fit (within reason), but I forget that I can also warp it to fit. I’ve loved Puppet Warp since it first was introduced, but simply don’t need it often enough to remember I can use it when it would be the ideal tool. It’s the V8 juice of Photoshop for me—gee, I coulda had a puppet warp.

After the Million Pussy March, I wanted to commemorate the women of all walks of life who came together not just to protest the planned demise of women’s choice, but to celebrate their sisterhood. I had a picture I took long ago in Washington DC, plus plenty of cats, but no pink pussy hat images that fit them all. I settled on Halloween cartoon cats to emphasize them awake (and determined), but would have had the same problem had I chosen pictures of real cats. The need to make just a couple of hat images fit a lot of different cats meant Puppet Warp to the rescue!

Puppet Warp is intended for you to use on a pixel-based object on an otherwise transparent layer. It will work on any layer that isn’t a Background layer (even on masks and shape layers, but only over the entire layer—expect some disappointing results). It’s usefulness as the name implies, however, is primarily for warping a puppet, not an entire landscape photo. I find it’s best used on a Smart Object layer as a Smart Filter, since that way you can reopen the dialog and edit the warp again—or remove it entirely. Most of the time, the default settings in the Options bar are as good as you’ll need, but it’s also helpful to understand the other options, since you might want to use them from time to time.

Puppet Warp run as a Smart Filter
Puppet Warp will run as a Smart Filter on a Smart Object layer, allowing you to re-enter the Puppet Warp dialog and continue editing the mesh as if you’d never clicked OK, as well as making it easy to remove the warp entirely.
Before and after editing Puppet Warp as a Smart Filter
When run as a Smart Filter, Puppet Warp lets you return to the dialog to change any of its settings long after you initially committed to the warp.

Puppet Warp works with pins which, when active, let you drag on the mesh, and when inactive, will block a region of the mesh around the pin from being easily modified, so the distortion occurs only where the inactive pins have no sphere of influence. In the Options bar, looking at it from left to right, you might choose Rigid for the Mode if you don’t want an inactive anchor to have a large sphere of influence, protecting more of the mesh from distortion, or choose Distort to make the sphere of influence around anchoring pins very small, making a fluid, smooth distortion over more of the mesh at once.

Viewing Mesh and active/inactive pins
Active pins have a white dot in the center and allow you to freely drag on them. Solid pins attempt to prevent the mesh from being distorted within their circle of influence. You can Shift-select multiple pins to move them in tandem.
Left half of Options Bar
The leftmost drop down list sets how easily the mesh can be distorted when moving a pin. The middle drop down list sets how fine the mesh will be. Expansion extends the mesh beyond the object by number of pixels, and the grid icon toggles the mesh visibility on and off.
Balls used to compare mesh modes.
The ball on the left is being distorted with the “Normal” mode for warping, while the ball on the right uses the same move with the “Distort” mode. Note that the ball with Distort attempts to make the amount of warping even all over, unlike “Normal,” which limits most of the distortion to the area right around the pin being moved. The Mesh visibility is off for easier viewing.

For how fine the mesh is, choose Fewer Points if you need the mesh to distort more smoothly over a broader area, or More Points if you want to be able to easily pin down the mesh to limit the warp to a smaller area. Expansion helps you get control over very fine areas, such as the fine stems of flowers. By placing the mesh outside the object itself, you can place pins further apart so each pin has a greater area of influence. This helps make for smoother mesh distortion.

The “layer” buttons for Pin Depth are a feature I have almost never used. Pins are remembered by the computer as if each one has been placed on a layer. If you move a pin so the object being distorted crosses over another object, whether the mesh you move is on top or behind depends upon which “layer” each pin resides on. Use the Pin Depth icons to move the active pin up or down the “layer stack” in order to move it in front of or behind the inactive pin(s).

Right half of Options Bar
The right half of the Options bar handles Pin Depth and Mesh Rotation, as well as the usual Reset, Cancel, and Commit icons.
Pin "stack" visually demonstrated
Pins are stacked behind the scenes as they are laid down. When one part of the mesh crosses another part, you can use the Pin Depth icons to place that part of the mesh on top of the rest, or behind it. The Mesh visibility is off for easier viewing.

When bending an object using rotation, you’ll usually grab a pin and move it freely. The default Auto rotation mode allows you to do this, and uses your Mode to determine how the mesh distorts. But if you want to set a specific amount of rotation, you can enter a number (positive or negative) in the input field, or hold down the Option/Alt key to display a rotation circle around the active pin, and drag just outside of the circle to visually determine the rotation. In both cases, Auto switches to Fixed and you can change the Mode after the rotation to see the effect of the different modes. An advantage of using the Fixed rotation is it will only rotate the selected area. You can’t accidentally drag it up, down or sideways, which is very easy to do when in Auto rotation mode.

Mesh warping with Auto or Fixed selected
Rotating a pin by dragging on the pin itself leaves the Rotate setting at the default Auto, which uses whatever Mode setting is in effect. The angle field automatically updates to show the degree of rotation (middle image). But if you use the HUD (head’s up display) with the Opt/Alt key pressed to rotate the mesh, or enter a specific number in the Angle field, Rotate switches to Fixed. You can easily change the Mode from Rigid (left image) to Distort (right image) and the fixed angle remains the same, while the Mode changes the degree of warping you see.

You can also use modifier keys with Puppet Warp. The Option/Alt key will display the scissors icon when hovering over an active pin to delete it. Or you can press the delete/Backspace key to do the same thing. If you want to select multiple pins and move them at the same time, select each one with the Shift key held down. Whichever active pin you now grab will tug on all the other selected pins.

Cmd/Ctrl-H toggles the Mesh View (grid icon) if you haven’t chosen that shortcut to hide Photoshop itself. Whatever keyboard shortcut you have assigned to Undo lets you undo the last move you made (there is no stepping backwards in history multiple times) and you can either press the Reset icon to remove the pins but stay in Puppet Warp mode, or press Esc to cancel the entire operation.

Final edited Vase with Flowers
Agapanthus grows upright on heavy stalks, but here a few stalks have “wilted,” thanks to Puppet Warp, to create a more asymmetrical bouquet. Credits: Booland, Valentina, LDavison, and Zesty.

So if you’re one of those who has been intimidated by Puppet Warp, or too often forget it’s even there, think about trying it more often. By using it as a Smart Filter on a Smart Object, your original image is safe and you can always try, try again if you’re not happy with the warped object in its setting.

Final "Million Pussy March" composite using Puppet Warp
“Million Pussy March” was created as part of my Democracy series to commemorate the Million Women March in Washington DC (and the more millions around the globe). I warped all the pink pussy hats to fit their owners.

Editing Smart Objects—PNG & JPEG

A Tip for Working With Photoshop Smart Objects

During a discussion about the limitations of editing Photoshop Smart Objects, some of us brought up for the thousandth plus time how frustrating it is to open a JPEG or PNG Smart Object, edit it, and then have to destructively flatten the file back to its original state before we can save the edits to our document.  A good problem-solver in the group took a look and said the real problem is JPEG and PNG files open into their own format, which cannot accept layers, whereas a PSD will open as a PSB file, which can handle layers. The trick, then, is to get the JPEG or PNG file to open as a PSB file.

And to do that, our problem-solving friend told us, run the Convert to Smart Object command on the Smart Object layer containing the JPEG or PNG. Now when I double-click on the Smart Object icon to open it, I’ll see the file format is a PSB file. This will increase the original document’s file size, but it also means I can pile on the layers, layer styles, and even Smart Filters to my heart’s content, just so long as I’m willing to sacrifice extra disk space when saving it.

Original example of PNG file
The original file that I want to alter.
PNG file being edited with layers
The file was placed in my PSD document as a Smart Object, but if I want to edit that file, Photoshop informs me I have to flatten the layers to return the file to its original state.

One reason I might be willing to accept larger files is if I thought that many edits, or days, later, I might change my mind about the edits I’ve made. Having already made one destructive edit, I’d have to make a second, even if the only change to all the edits I wanted to make was to the one of the edits. My Layers panel, too, will be more manageable if I don’t add a lot of clipped adjustment layers above the basic PNG or JPEG Smart Object layers. I inevitably make some kind of mistake where I lose the clipping, and now my adjustment layer is affecting everything below it. For a subtle adjustment, I might not even notice before I’ve begun adjusting everything to match the mistake. I’d rather have those layers tucked away inside the Smart Object.  Add to that, the fewer layers I have to deal with, the clearer I can see what I want to alter or replace, and I’m not scrolling and scrolling and scrolling to find it.

The converted PSB file
By converting the original placed Smart Object layer to a Smart Object once again, double-clicking on that Smart Object to edit it proves the file is now a PSB file and can retain all the layers, filters, and other effects that a PSD file can retain. Notice that the image above opened at 50%, but this image opened at 100%. That’s because I had transformed the original Smart Object layer before I converted it again to a new Smart Object. This is 100% of the converted Smart Object. The original, if I double-clicked on the Smart Object layer visible in this screenshot, is still the full size file I imported. It is also still a PNG file.
Images compared after editing PSB file
Not happy with the strong pinks, I was able to come back and re-edit the Smart Object using the original layers I had added to the PSB file.

Now that I know that the trick to allowing for layers is to create a PSB file, and that creating that file is as easy as simply converting a Smart Object layer containing a PNG or JPEG to another Smart Object layer, I’ll be using that trick often. Smart Objects have many idiosyncrasies, but they offer some of the best protection against destructive editing we have, and are worth mastering.

"At School" art journal composite image
From my Democracy series, “At School” art journals a tweet by Harry Potter author, J. K. Rowling. Credits go mainly to Eenas, Finecrafted, and Holliewood.

MagicSquire for Photoshop

A Brush and Tool preset organizer

Last week during a discussion on the lack of good organization features in Photoshop’s Brushes panels, someone mentioned that they had recently purchased MagicSquire (, a new extension that allows the user to organize brushes into groups, as well as create thumbnail previews and edit the brushes themselves.

This isn’t the developer’s first application. DiskFonts and both MagicPicker and MixColor have been around for some time. MagicSquire is almost brand new, but the developer is putting a lot of effort into bringing in new features, and responds to feedback posted on his feedback page within a day’s time. In the week I’ve owned MagicSquire, I’ve received two updates, and two positive responses to my own feedback requests.

MagicSquire isn’t the only brush organizer out there. I’ve heard good words for both Brusherator and Brush Box, but I’ve only visited their websites; I’ve never used them. I’ve also been using Brush Pilot as a brush viewer for a good many years. However, it’s not been updated for a very long time and has tended to crash more often in Yosemite on my Mac. The website only lists compatibility up to Mavericks. While it’s Mac only, I have seen that there are brush viewers out there for Windows.

Brush Pilot doesn’t work within Photoshop, but previews .abr files with scalable thumbnails and installs them into Photoshop. You can also export PNG files from an .abr file with or without transparency, which can be very handy. You can even Print to PDF to create a contact sheet. You need to use Photoshop’s Preset Manager for any other operations. However, I find being able to preview the contents of an .abr file before installing it so valuable, I’m very happy to have Brush Pilot even if it is no longer being developed and does sometimes have a crashing fit. I have long requested that Bridge take over this role, but so far, nothing has come of that request.

Brush Pilot screen shots
Brush Pilot scans your entire computer searching for .abr files. Any it finds it presents in a tree structure. One pane of the tree structure is devoted to brushes already installed. Click on any .abr file and it previews the contents, using scalable thumbnails to make previewing easy.
MagicSquire's Interface for brushes and edit mode
The bottom image displays the groups, including groups for tools such as the Mixer Brush and the Smudge tool, which are indicated by small icons. In the top panel, the brush shown below in the red box has had stroke thumbnails generated for it—similar to choosing Stroke Thumbnail in Photoshop’s brush panels, but with more options. The Edit dialog lets you name/rename, pick a preview, create a new brush preset, or update the current brush.

For “The Refugee,” (detail above, full image at the end of this post) I used several brushes to create the texture, and it was much easier than it has ever been to select the Brushes and Tool Presets I used, thanks to MagicSquire’s ability to sort them into groups and present a visual reference. I also was able to easily modify a brush and click on the  New Preset icon to save it directly into the same group—or into any group I first targeted.Brushes can be dragged from one group to another, and new groups can be created to organize brushes at any time. Renaming brushes is possible any time you double-click on a brush to enter the Edit mode. The dialog is fully resizable, and with the latest update, you can choose to view a compact mode instead of the full panel. It shrinks the panel to the size of the brush thumbnail until you hover over it, then expands to the full panel while you select another brush. Move your cursor away again and it automatically shrinks back.

Note that in Compact mode, there currently appears to be a bug: double-clicking on a brush to edit it does open the Edit dialog, but it jumps back and forth, making it impossible to enter anything into it, at least on my computer using a Wacom stylus and tablet. But the mode is terrific so long as I exit it before attempting to edit or create a new brush preset.

Screen shots for compact mode
Select Compact mode from the panel menu to create a very small panel easily floated anywhere you want it, or keep it docked as an icon. The panel will automatically pop open on hover and shrink back again when you move your cursor away. (Does not currently work properly in Edit mode)

I’ve been told that the developer is now working to offer previewing by name, marking brushes as favorites, and eventually, loading and saving sets of brushes so those of us with far too many don’t have to load them all in order to keep them organized through MagicSquire. I can hardly wait!

One word of advice for anyone who decides to get MagicSquire: if you’re running 2017, you’ll also want to pick up the free Extension Manager from the Anastasiy website in order to install it, and not try to use the now-deprecated Adobe Extension Manager.

"The Refugee" an art journal page for Democracy series
“The Refugee” in my Democracy series — The quote is a selection from Warsan Shire’s poem “Home.” Other credits go to Rebecca McMeen and The Urban Fairy for several of the design elements.


Photoshop layer management from Creative Do

Not long ago, I was in a forum thread discussing how difficult it can be moving layers from one document to another inside Photoshop, especially if, like me, you work with tabbed documents or more than 5 or 6 open images at a time. I frequently apply an edit to one document that I then want to apply to several others in order to coordinate them. But even if I’m working with only two documents, it’s awkward moving selected layers across tabs, and can even be difficult with tiled windows. Someone mentioned that he uses DOCO from Creative DO ( DOCO is available as a Photoshop CC extension through Adobe’s Addons site (Window> Browse Extensions Online (also Help> Browse Add-ons in CC2015, and Help> Find Plug-ins and Extensions in CC2017).

DOCO’s very modest price has been well worth it to me in time saved and for ease of use. I no longer have to either group multiple layers in order to drag them over the tab of another document—if that tab is visible—or tile the documents, which can be too many to accommodate. DOCO requires you check Enable Generator in Preferences> Plug-ins> Generator, then open it from the Window > Extensions menu once you’ve installed it. I keep it docked with other panels I want always open, but you can keep it docked or not as you please. After that, whenever one or more documents are open, opening DOCO’s panel will connect it through the Generator plug-in to recognize all your open documents. Like other panels, the panel is resizable, as are the thumbnails. A checkmark in the upper left indicates the currently selected document or documents, so some actions can be performed easily on multiple documents with one push of a button.

First step in converting a template
Using DOCO to convert from 12” square template to Landscape letter size. One layer has been copied from the source to the target and transformed to fit.
Screenshot indicated layers being copied to another document
Copying the last selected layers from the source document (the lower right cluster), into position to then transform them to fit. DOCO graphically displays that the selected layers have transferred from the active document to the target document.

The initial startup can be a bit slow on my old Mac Pro, but after that I don’t notice any significant delay when using it. If I’m drag-copying several layers at once, it can take a bit of time to complete the action, but that’s dependent on how fast your computer is and how much RAM you have. If I select the same number of layers, then drag them onto another tiled layer without using DOCO, it still takes Photoshop a considerable amount of time to make the copy, and is both more difficult to set up, and I have to drag much farther distances.

Finished template easily organized through DOCO
It was very easy to click on the target document thumbnail, drag some layers over, transform, then click back on the target’s thumbnail to bring over more layers, keeping all organized in groups that were neat and tidy.

Even better than using DOCO to adjust my templates is using DOCO to recolor individual elements to give a new lease on life to an old kit. I can open 20 objects (or more) and know that DOCO will keep track of them and provide live previews for each one. I take one element to alter with adjustment layers—for instance, changing purples to pinks, although you obviously can change a hue more radically than that. Adding adjustment layers is non-destructive, and I find that adding just a Hue/Saturation and a Brightness/Contrast layer to the object I wish to recolor is often enough. But you can experiment with any number of ways to recolor using non-destructive methods. (I have written about tinting and recoloring at some length in the Restoring Trudie Ann series of tutorials.)  You can even record a very simple action that adds a few empty adjustment layers to a document to have them ready to hold the changes.

After adjusting the settings for one object or paper, open DOCO, select the adjustment layers in the Layers panel, then drag them from that document’s thumbnail in DOCO to the next open thumbnail. Continue dragging from the thumbnail you just altered to the next thumbnail until all the open documents have the copied adjustment layers in them. Now you can work backwards, altering settings for that object’s adjustment layers, if necessary, before saving and closing it. Next click on the new “last” thumbnail to adjust and save it. You don’t have to be able to see all your tabs, remember file names, open a separate file list when you have too many tabs open, tile all your documents, or remember which documents haven’t been adjusted, since the resizable panel and thumbnails in DOCO let you easily see what you’ve done.

Using one set of adjustment layers to recolor many different files
When recoloring a group of objects, DOCO lets me ignore the cluttered document window in Photoshop and copy selected layers from one object to the next in the thumbnail pane. The selected layers remain selected as they are copied, so there’s no need to reselect them in the Layers panel.
Panel and thumbnails resize to be extremely large
The dialog above has been resized to almost the same width as my image window inside Photoshop on a 24” monitor. The scale button (lower right) hasn’t even reached the largest thumbnail size available, making it incredibly easy to see what you’re doing when working with DOCO.

While these are the two most common ways I use DOCO, you can perform even more actions on one file or multiple open files. Drag multiple documents onto the active document to merge all of them into the active document, drag selected layers from a document into a drop zone (empty thumbnail space) to create a new document with those layers copied into it, rotate documents, match the size of multiple documents to the size of the active document, close selected documents, and paste the clipboard contents to selected documents.

DOCO's panel icons
Icons at the bottom of the DOCO panel provide a number of functions that don’t require using a modifier key.

I hope this gives you some idea of how this powerful, but inexpensive, Photoshop extension panel can help with your own workflow. I don’t know how I managed without it all these years.

"Speak No Truth" art journal page in Democracy series
“Speak No Truth” is the latest in my Democracy series. Credits: Anna Aspnes and Jen Maddocks.

Photoshop’s Merge Command

So many secret handshakes in Adobe Photoshop

Not long ago someone posted on a forum that he was having difficulty with Photoshop’s Merge command. It wasn’t behaving as he expected it to. In the course of helping the poster troubleshoot, I found myself going over the different ways the Merge command is invoked, producing very different results depending upon the state of the layers that are being merged, as well as the modifier keys we use to invoke a Merge command. I thought it might be helpful if I posted a summary here.

To avoid some of the massive confusion about these commands, which have been given a variety of names, I’m relying on the name of each command the History panel uses. The History panel produces a legal document and has to differentiate between each of the Merge commands. When it was developed, these are the names it used. These aren’t necessarily the common names people have used over time, but they are the names I think we might do well to adopt to avoid confusion. To follow along, open the History panel (Window> History) and look at the current state right after invoking one of these commands. I kept the graphic as simple as I could to avoid even more complication.

Cmd-E: Merge Down: This is the primary Merge command which merges the selected layer to the layer immediately beneath it. Layers that don’t allow you to merge a layer into them include Smart Object, Video and Adjustment layers. Vector Shape layers can’t merge into other vector Shape layers, either. However, all of these layers except Video can merge into a normal image layer, whether or not the bottom layer includes transparency. If a mask is present on the bottom layer, a popup message will ask you how you want to handle the mask.

Cmd-Shift-E: Merge Visible: This will merge all visible layers, but it will behave differently depending upon whether or not the bottom visible layer is a Background layer or not. If the bottommost layer can contain transparency (Layer 0, for instance) all the layers are merged without duplicating them into the topmost visible layer. If the bottom layer is a Background layer, it will merge all visible layers to the Background layer without first duplicating them.

Layers and History panels showing results
If the visible layers do not include a Background layer, the layers will merge without being duplicated into the topmost selected and visible layer (left). If the visible layers you’re merging include a Background layer, the visible layers will merge into the Background layer (right).

Cmd-Opt-E: Stamp Layers: Stamp is another way of saying “make a copy of the layers and merge it onto a layer.” This is not found in the Layers menu or in the Layers panel menu It is one of Adobe’s many secret handshakes. If all layers can contain transparency, it creates a copy of only the selected layers, and merges them to a new layer above the topmost selected layer. You don’t have to create a new layer first.

If the bottom selected layer is a Background layer, it merges a copy of all the selected layers to the Background layer, changing the Background layer itself, but leaving the other layers intact. This command is especially useful if you have a lot of layers, but only want to merge a very few­—rather than turning off the visibility for several layers, simply select those few you want to merge.

History and Layers panel showing command results
If your selected layers do not include a Background layer, Stamp Layers will add a new layer above the selected layers and stamp a merged copy onto that layer (left). If the selected layers do include a Background layer, the merged copy of all those layers is stamped onto the Background itself (right).
Detail from artwork showing Stamp Layers instance
This is a detail from a much larger document that had many layers. When I wanted to create a drop shadow for the two Xquizart figures, the easiest way to keep the original elements intact, but create a combined drop shadow, was to select the layers I wanted to copy with merge, and use the Stamp Layers command to place it above the original layers. I then turned off the visibility on the original layers, but if I decided at any time to change something, I still had access to them.
Layers and History panel showing instance of
This is possibly the most popular of the Merge commands. It copies, then merges, any visible layers into a new layer that it creates. The layer is placed directly above whatever layer is currently active. In typical use, you want that to be the top layer you currently have in the Layers panel, but not always.

Cmd-Opt-Shift-E:  Stamp Visible: Many people also call this command simply “Merge Visible,” but that doesn’t distinguish it from the actual Merge Visible command found in the Layers panel. This command doesn’t exist in either the Layers panel or in the Layers menu. However, if you hold down the Option/Alt key when accessing Merge Visible from the Layers panel, it will invoke the Stamp Visible command, which you can see reflected in the History panel state.

This popular, though hidden, command copies all the visible layers, merging them, and “stamps” the merged copy to a new layer above whatever layer is currently selected, even a Background layer. You don’t have to create a new empty layer with this command. It will make the layer for you. Of course, if only one layer is visible, Cmd/Ctrl-J to duplicate that layer is the better command.

I hope you find this helpful. Between the lack of menu commands and the variable ways they each behave, the commands can be frustrating. However, they’re worth memorizing. I most often use the Merge Visible and Stamp Visible commands, but there are definitely occasions where Merge Down and Stamp Layers serve my needs.

Full image for A Post-Truth World
A Post-Truth World is one in my Democracy series. When I created it, I added text at the top, then decided I wanted to run Topaz Texture Effects on the image— but without affecting the text or flattening any of the layers. I turned off the visibility on the closed Group text layer and targeted the layer beneath it before using the Stamp Visible command. Credits: itKuPiLLi, Priss, Lorie Davison, Holliewood, and many others.